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Introduction To OOP(object Oriented Programming) Concept Step By Step PDF.Top Reseached Based OOP interview Questions.OOP(object Oriented Programming) Principles. how to Implement OOP in Lanaguages

What Is OOP(Object oriented Programming) 

  • OOP was introduced to overcome flaws in  the procedural approach to programming.
  •  Such as lack of re usability & maintainability.
  •  Fundamental idea behind object‐oriented  languages is to combine into a single unit  both data and the functions that operate  on that data.
  •  Such a unit is called an object.

Why Do We Need Object‐Oriented  Programming.

  • Object‐Oriented Programming was  developed because limitations were  discovered in earlier approaches to  programming.
  • To appreciate what OOP does, we need to  understand what these limitations are and  how they arose from traditional  programming languages.

Basic Concepts of oops

1. Objects

2. Classes

3. Data Abstraction

4. Data Encapsulation

5. Inheritance

6. Polymorphism

7. Dynamic binding

8. Message Passing




Objects 

Objects are the basic run‐time entities of an  object oriented system.  • They may represent a person, a place or any  item that the program must handle.When a program is executed, the objects  interact by sending messages to one  another. • For e.g. if “customer” and “account” are two  objects in a program, then the customer  object may send a message to the account  object requesting for the bank balance. • Each object contains data, and code to  manipulate the data.

Classes

Classes are user‐defined data types and it  behaves like built in types of programming  language. • Object contains code and data which can be  made user define type using class. • Objects are variables of class. • Once a class has been defined we can create  any number of objects for that class. • A class is collections of objects of similar  type.

Encapsulation

Encapsulation is the first pillar or principle of  object‐oriented programming.  In simple words, “Encapsulation is a process of  binding data members (variables, properties)  and member functions (methods) into a single  unit”. And Class is the best example of encapsulation.

Through Encapsulation, Data is not  accessible to the outside world, and only  those functions which are wrapped in the  class can access it.  Encapsulation solves the problem at the  implementation level. A class can specify how accessible each of its  members (variables, properties, and  methods) is to code outside of the class

So encapsulation means hiding the important features of a class which is not been needed to be exposed outside of a class and exposing only necessary things of a class.  Here hidden part of a class acts like Encapsulation and exposed part of a class acts like

Abstraction

Abstraction refers representation of  necessary features without including more  details or explanations. Data abstraction is a programming (and  design) technique that relies on the  separation of interface and implementation.

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